Motivation & Leadership (Chapter 13 & 14)

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Personal Leadership Style and Managerial Tasks

A manager’s personal leadership style—that is, the specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence other people—shapes how that manager approaches planning, organizing, and controlling (the other principal tasks of managing). Consider Laurie Glimcher’s personal leadership style as described in “A Manager’s Challenge.” She empowers employees, emphasizes doing what’s best for patients, and fosters an environment for collaboration among the organization’s varied medical specialties. Managers at all levels and in all kinds of organizations have their own personal leadership styles, which determine not only how they lead their subordinates, but also how they perform the other management tasks. Michael Kraus, owner and manager of a dry cleaning store in the northeastern United States, for example, takes a hands-on approach to leadership. He has the sole authority for determining work schedules and job assignments for the 15 employees in his store (an organizing task), makes all important decisions by himself (a planning task), and closely monitors his employees’ performance and rewards top performers with pay increases (a control task). Kraus’s personal leadership style is effective in his organization. His employees generally are motivated, perform highly, and are satisfied—and his store is highly profitable. Developing an effective personal leadership style often is a challenge for managers at all levels in an organization. This challenge is often exacerbated when times are tough, due, for example, to an economic downturn or a decline in customer demand. The recession in the late 2000sprovided many managers with just such a challenge.

Servant Leadership

Servant leader is a leader who has a strong desire to serve and work for the benefit of others. They have a strong desire to work for the benefit of others. Servant leaders share power with followers and strive to ensure that followers’ most important needs are met, that they are able to develop as individuals, that their well-being is enhanced, and that attention is paid to those who are least well-off in a society. Servant leadership is unique as a leadership approach because the leader views his or her role more as a motivator and listener, someone who empowers followers to act as collaborators and innovators within the organization.

Leadership Styles across Cultures

Some evidence suggests that leadership styles vary not only among individuals, but also among countries or cultures. Some research indicates that European managers tend to be more humanistic, or people-oriented, than both Japanese and American managers. The collectivistic culture in Japan places prime emphasis on the group rather than the individual, so the importance of individuals’ own personalities, needs, and desires is minimized. Organizations in the United States tend to be very profit-oriented and thus tend to downplay the importance of individual employees’ needs and desires. Many countries in Europe have a more individualistic perspective than Japan and a more humanistic perspective than the United States, and this may result in some European managers’ being more people-oriented than their Japanese or American counterparts. European managers, for example, tend to be reluctant to lay off employees, and when a layoff is absolutely necessary, they take careful steps to make it as painless as possible.Another cross-cultural difference occurs in time horizons. While managers in any one country often differ in their time horizons, there are also national differences. For example, U.S. organizations tend to have a short-term profit orientation; thus, U.S. managers’ personal leadership styles emphasize short-term performance. Japanese organizations tend to have a long-term growth orientation, so Japanese managers’ personal leadership styles emphasize long-term performance

Trait and Behavior Models of Leadership

The Trait Model

The trait model of leadership focused on identifying the personal characteristics that cause effective leadership

The Behaviour Model

After extensive study in the 1940s and 1950s, researchers at The Ohio State University identified two basic kinds of leader behaviors that many leaders in the United States, Germany, and other countries engaged in to influence their subordinates: consideration and initiating structure

CONSIDERATION: Leaders engage in consideration when they show their subordinates that they trust, respect, and care about them. Managers who truly look out for the well-being of their subordinates, and do what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy their work, perform consideration behaviors.

INITIATING STRUCTURE Leaders engage in initiating structure when they take steps to make sure that work gets done, subordinates perform their jobs acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effective. Assigning tasks to individuals or work groups, letting subordinates know what is expected of them, deciding how work should be done, making schedules, encouraging adherence to rules and regulations, and motivating subordinates to do a good job are all examples of initiating structure.

Fiedler’s Contingency Model

Fred E. Fiedler was among the first leadership researchers to acknowledge that effective leadership is contingent on, or depends on, the characteristics of the leader and of the situation. Fiedler’s contingency model helps explain why a manager may be an effective leader in one situation and ineffective in another; it also suggests which kinds of managers are likely to be most effective in which situations. Thing s that influents Fiedler’s Contingency Model are:

•Leader Style

•Situational Character

•Leader – Member Relations

•Task Structure

•Position Power

•Combining Leader Style And The Situation

House’s Path–Goal Theory

In what he called path–goal theory, leadership researcher Robert House focused on what leaders can do to motivate their subordinates to achieve group and organizational goals. Thepremise of path–goal theory is that effective leaders motivate subordinates to achieve goals by

(1) clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from the workplace,

(2) rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high performance and the attainment of work goals, and 

(3) clarifying for subordinates the paths leading to the attainment of workgoals. 

Path–goal theory is a contingency model because it proposes that the steps managers should take to motivate subordinates depend on both the nature of the subordinates and the type of work they do.

The Leader Substitutes Model

The leader substitutes model suggests that leadership is sometimes unnecessary because substitutes for leadership are present. A leadershipsubstitute is something that acts in place of the influence of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary. This model suggests that under certain conditions managers do not have to play a leadership role—members of an organization sometimes can perform at a high level without a manager exerting influence over them. The leader substitutes model is a contingency model because it suggests that in some situations leadership is unnecessary.

Bringing It All Together

Effective leadership in organizations occurs when managers take steps to lead in a way that is appropriate for the situation, or context, in which leadership occurs and for the subordinates who are being led. The three contingency models of leadership just discussed help managers focus on the necessary ingredients for effective leadership. They are complementary in that each

Transformational Leadership

Time and time again, throughout business history, certain leaders seem to transform their organizations, making sweeping changes to revitalize and renew operations.

Transformational leadership occurs when managers change (or transform) their subordinates in three important ways:

1.Transformational managers make subordinates aware of how important their jobs are for the organization and how necessary it is for them to perform those jobs as best they can so the organization can attain its goals.

2.Transformational managers make their subordinates aware of the subordinates’ own needs for personal growth, development, and accomplishment.

3.Transformational managers motivate their subordinates to work for the good of the organization as a whole, not just for their own personal gain or benefit.

When managers transform their subordinates in these three ways, subordinates trust the managers, are highly motivated, and help the organization achieve its goals. How do managers transform subordinates and produce dramatic effects in their organizations? There are at least three ways in which transformational leaders can influence their followers: by being a charismatic leader, by intellectually stimulating subordinates, and by engaging in developmental consideration.

Disusun Oleh Kelompok 8 Bravehearted

  • Yosi Amelia Putri
  • Mahatir M Tamher
  • Septian Arif Nugroho

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  1. Thank you for the presentation & article, mbak Putri, mas Septian & mas Mahatir. Question : biggest challenge as a leader is to keep ALL team members are motivated at ALL TIMES… especially in the VUCA environment…when not only the workloads are becoming double (or even triple) but also the psychological aspects (work-life balance issue, mental health issue). At the same time, the leader (especially the middle management leader) must also “take care” of their own job and wellbeing. What is your view on this and what is the best way to overcome the challenge?

  2. Terima Kasih atas pembahasan materinya yang bagus dan menarik. Saya ada perrtanyaan terkait Transformational Leadership, apakah dan bagaimanakah manager dalam Transformational Leader itu bisa meng influence bawahannya ?

  3. Terima Kasih atas pembahasan materinya yang bagus dan menarik. Saya ada perrtanyaan terkait Transformational Leadership, apakah dan bagaimanakah manager dalam Transformational Leader itu bisa meng influence bawahannya ? Bagaimana cara mengukur keberhasilan dari Transformational Leadeship yang telah diterapkan?
    Terima Kasih

  4. Terima kasih untuk materinya Mbak Putri, Mas Septian dan Mas Mahatir..

    Menarik sekali materi tentang Leadership.. Menjadi seorang Leader tidaklah mudah. Di satu sisi masih memiliki ambisi pribadi, bagaimanapun seorang Leader pasti ingin terlihat dan menonjol diantara yang lain. Sedangkan, di sisi lain, seorang leade wajib menggerakan dan memajukan subordinat nya, serta mencetak leaders baru. Pertanyaannya:

    1. Bagaimana seorang Leader bisa menyeimbangkan 2 issues diatas?

    2. Bagaimana menjadi seorang charismatic leader, seperti yang dibahas pada bagian Transformational Leadership.

    3. Hal apa yg pertama kali harus dilakukan sebagai seorang pemimpin (perusahaan, departemen, projek, dll)?

  5. Dalam setting pekerjaan, setiap tim pasti memiliki suatu target yang harus dicapai. Apa saja yang dapat dilakukan seorang manajer apabila anggota di dalam timnya memiliki need for achievement yang cenderung rendah?

  6. Menarik sekali pembahasan kali ini mengenai motivasi dan leadership, terima kasih untuk Mba Putri, Mas Septian dan Mas Mahatir, ada yang ingin saya tanyakan yaitu bagaimana caranya kita tetap memotivasi subordinat kita yang berbeda-beda latar belakang dan karakternya untuk menyelesaikan suatu task dengan cara dan goal yang sama? Terima kasih.

  7. Keren sekali penulisan dan penggambaran materinya. Namun saya masih belum bisa memahami secara jelas dan riil aplikasi dari manajerial (motivation and leadership) berdasarkan leadership style, kemudian trait and behaviour modelnya. Jadi bisakah untuk dijelaskan contoh riilnya? Misal perusahaan atau usaha apa, dan bagaimana pendekatannya apabila dibahas berdasarkan chapter yang sudah dijelaskan tersebut. Terima Kasih.

  8. Terima kasih atas presentasinya team bravehearted, ijin bertanya:

    1. Bagaimana jika karakter seorang leader hanya task oriented namun tetap dipertahankan oleh perusahaan karena hanya melihat hasil, disisi lain attrition rate cukup tinggi karena relationship oriented yg cukup rendah bagaimana menyikapi kondisi tersebut?

    2. Manakah yang lebih penting, kemampuan teknis atau kemampuan managerial bagi seorang leader ?

    Terima kasih

  9. 2 Topik yang sangat menarik, terima kasih atas presentasinya teman2 Brave Hearted. Saya mau bertanya menurut Brave Harted model atau gaya kepemimpinan yang seperti apa yang sangat ideal untuk diterapkan/digunakan pada masa sekarang? Terima kasih

  10. Olla bravehearted!! Sangat brave sekali bahasannya!

    Saya Mohon arahan mengenai motivasi. Bagaimana cara seorang manager / mentor yang memiliki bawahan dengan motivasi minim untuk berkembang. Terus berada di fase safety karena merasa cukup dengan apa yang didapatkan dan cenderung menolak risiko. Bagaimana cara yang paling efektif untuk Mendorong mentee / staff tersebut ke fase level grow.

    Terima kasih

  11. Hi team bravehearted, thank you untuk sharing knowledgenya. Mohon ijin untuk bertanya, apa saja indikasi bad/poor leadership dari seorang manager? Apakah tingginya turnover rate termasuk salah satunya? Terima kasih, sehat selalu.

  12. Terima kasih atas penjelasannya team Bravehearted.
    Memang tidak mudah menjadi seorang leader yang terus dapat memotivasi karyawan. Yang ingin saya tanyakan yaitu apa saja yang perlu dilakukan oleh seorang leader, apabila ada pegawai status pegawai tetap, yang memiliki performance rendah, dan hanya pasrah, bekerja sesuai pemikirannya sendiri?

  13. Thank you team bravehearted atas artikelnya yg menarik dan bermanfaat. saya ingin bertanya seberapa penting bagi seorang leader untuk mengubah / mengadaptasikan trait dan behaviournya ketika dihadapkan pada team dengan kultur budaya bahkan bahasa yang berbeda? sedangkan seorang leader tentu sudah mempunyai trait dan behaviour tersendiri dimana hal tersebut sudah menjadi keunikan dari gaya leadershipnya.

  14. penjelasan yg clear. terim kasih mba Putri, mas Atir dan mas Arief. Dalam hal hands on approch of management tadi terbukti memberikan hasil memuaskan untuk klien. Tapi apakah cara ini membuat karyawan menjadi tergantung dengan manager. Jika manager tidak ada belum tentu output maksimal? Terima kasih teman2

    1. Thank you presentasi dan artikelnya kelompok braveheart,
      Izin bertanya terkait problematika dimana seorang staff yang akan dipromosikan menjadi supervisor maupun manager tetapi merasa dirinya tidak mampu untuk mengemban posisi itu dikarenakan minder dan merasa tidak mempuni. Adakah solusinya ?

      Henry julianto

  15. Menarik pembahasan materi tentang motivasi dan leadership.
    dalam memativasi tentunya akan diarahkan pada tujuan atau pencapaian yg didasarkan pada potensi kemampuan individu yang sedang di grooming.
    bagaimana cara mengukur dan menentukan :
    1. keberhasilan atas motivasi yg kita lakukan
    2. bagaimana mengelola ekpektasi yg ditimbulkan atas motivasi yg diberikan supaya tidak berujung demotivasi karena kondisi dan kompetensi yang tidak sesuai
    terima kasih.

  16. Terima kasih Tim Bravehearted atas pemaparan artikelnya,
    Idealnya seorang leader selalu memotivasi bawahannya agar produktivitas pekerjaan selalu meningkat. Yang mau saya tanyakan apabila seorang leader ini membutuhkan motivasi dalam bekerja, langkah apa yang harus dia lakukan?

  17. Terima kasih untuk Presentasinya Bravehearted, sangant baik dan menarik. Terkait dengan keunikan Servant Leadership apakah bisa dikatakan bahwa Servant Leadership adalah contoh kategori Leader yang terbaik? Terima kasih

  18. Wuih…artikel dan penyampaiannya bagus dr mba Yosi Amelia Putri, Mahatir M Tamher, Septian Arif Nugroho.
    Tanya donk, Bagaimana sebagai pemimpin memotivasi pegawai yg demotivasi?

  19. Terimakasih atas presentasinya, saya ingin bertanya bagaimana Transformational Leadership yang tepat diterapkan kepada pemimpin daerah yang dihasilkan dari pilkada, dimana pemimpin daserah tidak melalui tahap tahap sebagaimana biasa dilakukan di perusahaan swasta
    Terimakasih – Arya Mabruri

  20. Terima kasih atas pemaparan materi dan artikel nya team bravehearted, ada pertanyaan dari kami, dalam bahasan mengenai leadership culture, apakah seorang pemimpin yang harus mengikuti culture bawahanya atau sebaliknya.. dan bagaimana tips nya dalam pemercepatan penyatuan culture dalam pekerjaan di sebuah team.. terima kasih…salam sukses dan sehat

  21. Terimakasih kelompok braveharted atas penjelasannya. Saya ingin bertanya, apakah menurut kelompok braveharted leadership adalah sebuah gift bagi seseorang ataukah dapat dibangun dari nol? terimakasih.

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